Prophet Muhammad’s ﷺ Letter to the King of ‘Oman, Jaifer, and his Brother ‘Abd Al-Jalandi

“In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.

From Muhammad bin ‘Abdullah to Jaifer and ‘Abd Al-Jalandi.

Peace be upon him who follows true guidance; thereafter I invite both of you to the Call of Islam. Embrace Islam. Allah has sent me as a Prophet to all His creatures in order that I may instil fear of Allah in the hearts of His disobedient creatures so that there may be left no excuse for those who deny Allah. If you two accept Islam, you will remain in command of your country; but if you refuse my Call, you’ve got to remember that all your possessions are perishable. My horsemen will appropriate your land, and my Prophethood will assume preponderance over your kingship.”



‘Amr bin Al-‘As, who was chosen to carry the letter, narrated the following story that happened before he was admitted into the audience of Jaifer.

“When I arrived in ‘Oman I contacted ‘Abd, who was known to be more mild-tempered than his brother:

‘Amr: I am the messenger of Allah’s Prophet ﷺ coming to see both, you and your brother.

‘Abd: You have to see my brother and read to him the letter you are carrying. He is my senior in both age and kingship. Incidentally, what is the purport of your mission?

‘Amr: The Prophet ﷺ calls upon you to believe in Allah Alone with no associate, discard any other deities and testify to the slavehood and Messengership of Muhammad ﷺ.

‘Abd: O ‘Amr! You come from a noble family, but first of all, tell me what was your father’s attitude concerning this Faith? You know, we used to follow his steps.

‘Amr: Death overtook him before believing in Muhammad’s ﷺ mission; I wish now he had embraced Islam and been truthful to it before his death. I myself had adopted the same attitude until Allah guided me towards Islam.

‘Abd: When did you embrace Islam?

‘Amr: When I was at Negus’s court. By the way, the latter did also enter into the fold of Islam.

‘Abd: What was his people’s reaction?

‘Amr: They approved of him and followed his steps.

‘Abd: The bishops and monks?

‘Amr: They did the same.

‘Abd: Beware ‘Amr of lying for this soon betrays man.

‘Amr: I never tell lies; moreover, our religion never allows it.

‘Abd: Has Hercules been informed of the Islamization of Negus?

‘Amr: Yes, of course.

‘Abd: How did you happen to know that?

‘Amr: Negus used to pay land tax to Hercules, but when the former embraced Islam, he swore he would discontinue that tax. When this news reached Hercules, his courtiers urged him to take action against Negus but he refused and added that he himself would do the same if he were not sparing of his kingship.

‘Abd: What does your Prophet exhort you to do?

‘Amr: He ﷺ exhorts us to obey Allah, the All-Mighty, the All-Glorious, be pious and maintain good ties with family kin; he forbids disobedience, aggression, adultery, wine, idolatry and devotion to the cross.

‘Abd: Fair words and fair beliefs are those you are calling for. I wish my brother would follow me to believe in Muhammad ﷺ and profess his religion, but my brother is too sparing of his kingship to become a subordinate.

‘Amr: Should your brother surrender himself to Islam, the Prophet ﷺ would give him authority over his people and take alms tax from the wealthy people to be given to the needy.

‘Abd: That is fair behaviour. But what is this alms tax you have mentioned?

‘Amr: It is a Divine injunction that alms tax be taken from the well-to-do people who have surplus wealth and be distributed to the poor.

‘Abd: I doubt if this can work among our people.

‘Amr stayed for some days to be admitted into Jaifer’s court until he was finally granted this permit. “He asked me to hand him the letter to read it. After that he asked me how Quraish reacted and I answered that they had followed him, some out of their own freewill and others overpowered by military fighting. Now, people have chosen Islam in preference to other creeds, and have realized through their mental insight that they had been straying in darkness. None, except you, is now out of the domain of Islam, so I advise you to embrace Islam so that you can provide security to yourself and your country.”

Here, he asked me to call on him the following day. The following day he showed some reluctance in receiving me but his brother, ‘Abd, interceded and I was given the chance to see him again but this time to address me in a threatening arrogant tone. However, after a private talk with his brother and reconsidering the whole situation, both brothers embraced Islam and proved to be true to Islam that had begun to make its way into this new area.

The context of this story reveals that this letter was sent at a much later date than the others, most likely after the conquest of Makkah.

Through these letters, the Prophet ﷺ managed to communicate his Message to most monarchs at that time; some believed, while others remained obdurate and persisted in their disbelief. However, the idea of embracing Islam, and the advent of a new Prophet preoccupied all of them.



Prophet Muhammad’s ﷺ letter to Harith bin Abi Shamir Al-Ghassani, King of Damascus

“In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.

From Muhammad, Messenger of Allah to Al-Harith bin Abi Shamir.

Peace be upon him who follows true guidance, believes in it and regards it as true. I invite you to believe in Allah Alone with no associate, thenceafter your kingdom will remain yours.”


Shuja’ bin Wahab had the honour of taking the letter to Harith, who upon hearing the letter read in his audience, was madly infuriated and arrogantly ordered the Muslim emissary to return and said he declares a state of war against the Muslims.

Later on when his cousin Shurahbil Ibn ‘Amr Al-Ghassani the governor of Balqa’, caught the Muslim emissary to the governor of Busra, he had him beheaded. This led to the battle of Mu’tah which was discussed earlier in this text, and the Muslims’ struggle against the Romans’ tyranny and their Arab allies ensued.

Killing envoys and messengers used to be regarded as the most awful crime, and amounted to the degree of war declaration. The Prophet [PBUH] was shocked on hearing the news and ordered that a large army of 3000 men be mobilized and dispatched to the north to discipline the transgressors. It was the largest Muslim army ever mobilized on this scale except in the process of the Confederates Battle.

[Za’d Al-Ma’ad 3/62; Muhadarat Tareekh Al-Umam Al- Islamiyah 1/146; Za’d Al-Ma’ad 2/155; Fath Al-Bari 7/511]

My Trusty Elephants…. 💕💕💕

You know, eight, sixteen and twenty-three can be difficult birthdays… 🙂 …..all in their own very ways.

“This is when we really start to grow up and our decisions and actions in life really begin to weigh in on us. Life pressures us to look to the future, to start building ourselves, to ready ourselves for the onslaught that is going to arrive soon in university, in student debt, in independence, and in our society. But, with all these loving people by my side, with all these prayers, and best of all with the help of Allah the Almighty, I feel like I can take it all on. I feel empowered, ready to jump onto the wagon, and begin the journey, no matter how many bumps in the road there are.

Though you all are far away, you are here in our hearts, and you’ve always been so, even as we grow and change. I’m so glad I was blessed with such a wonderful family. You’re the best 😃😃😉

Stay strong, my friends. United, we stand stalwart against the hardships of life. Stay happy too, for life is not all so long, and the best thing to do is enjoy it as best we can. Thank you everybody for your beautiful wishes, and keep praying for a better future! ❤️❤️”

Prophet Muhammad’s ﷺ letter to Haudha bin ‘Ali, Governor of Yamama

“In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.

From Muhammad, Messenger of Allah to Haudha bin ‘Ali.
Peace be upon him who follows true guidance. Be informed that my religion shall prevail everywhere. You should accept Islam, and whatever under your command shall remain yours.”


The envoy chosen was Sulait bin ‘Amr Al-‘Amiri, who after communicating his message, carried back the following reply to the Prophet ﷺ, “The Faith, to which you invite me, is very good. I am a famous orator and poet, the Arabs highly respect me and I am of account among them. If you include me in your government, I am prepared to follow you. ”

The governor then bestowed a reward on Sulait and presented him with clothes made of Hajr fabric. Of course, he put all those presents in the trust of the Prophet ﷺ.

The Prophet ﷺ did not accept Haudha’s demand. He usually turned down such peremptory tone, and would say that the whole matter was in the Hand of Allah, Who gave His land to whoever He desired. Gabriel later came with the Revelation that Haudha had died.

The Prophet ﷺ , in the context of his comment on this news, said: ” Yamama is bound to give rise to a liar who will arrogate Prophethood to himself but he will subsequently be killed.”

In reply to a question relating to the identity of the killer, the Prophet ﷺ said “It is one of you, followers of Islam.”

[Za’d Al-Ma’ad 3/63]

Prophet Muhammad’s ﷺ Letter to Mundhir bin Sawa, Governor of Bahrain…

The Prophet PBUH, despatched ‘Al-‘Ala’ bin Al-Hadrami to the governor of Bahrain, carrying a letter inviting him to embrace Islam. In reply, Al-Mundhir bin Sawa wrote the following letter: “Allah’s Messenger PBUH! I received your injunctions. Prior to this, I read your letter, which you wrote to the people of Bahrain extending to them an invitation to Islam. Islam appealed to some of them and they entered the fold of Islam, while others did not find it appealing. In my country, there live Magians and Jews, and therefore you may inform me of the treatment to be extended to them.”


The Prophet PBUH wrote the following letter in reply to his:

“In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.

From Muhammad, Messenger of Allah to Mundhir bin Sawa.

Peace be on you! I praise Allah with no associate, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger. Thereafter, I remind you of Allah, the Mighty, the Glorious. Whoever accepts admonition, does it for his own good. Whoever follows my messengers and acts in accordance with their guidance, he, in fact, accepts my advice. My messengers have highly praised your behaviour. You shall continue in your present office. Give the new Muslims full chance to preach their religion. I accept your recommendation regarding the people of Bahrain, and I pardon the offences of the offenders; therefore, you may also forgive them. Of the people of Bahrain whoever wants to go on in their Jewish or Magian faith, should be made to pay Jizya (poll-tax).”

[Za’d Al-Ma’ad 3/61 ,62]


Prophet Muhammad’s ﷺletter to The Envoy to Caesar, King of Rome…

Al-Bukhari gave a long narration of the contents of the letter sent by the Prophet ﷺ to Hercules, king of the Byzantines:

In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.

From Muhammad, the slave of Allah and His Messenger to Hercules, king of the Byzantines.

Blessed are those who follow true guidance. I invite you to embrace Islam so that you may live in security. If you come within the fold of Islam, Allah will give you double reward, but in case you turn your back upon it, then the burden of the sins of all your people shall fall on your shoulders.

“Say (O Muhammad [pbuh]): ‘O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), come to a word that is just between us and you, that we worship none but Allah, and that we associate no partners with Him, and that none of us shall take others as lords besides Allah.’ Then, if they turn away, say: ‘Bear witness that we are Muslims.’ ” [The Noble Qur’an 3:64]

[Sahih Al-Bukhari 1/4,5]


The Muslim envoy, Dihyah bin Khalifah Al-Kalbi, was ordered to hand the letter over to king of Busra, who would in turn, send it to Caesar.

Incidentally, Abu Sufyan bin Harb, who by that time had not embraced Islam, was summoned to the court and Hercules asked him many questions about Muhammad sH; and the religion which he preached. The testimony which this avowed enemy of the Prophet gave regarding the personal excellence of the Prophet’s character and the good that Islam was doing the human race, left Hercules wonder-struck.

Al-Bukhari, on the authority of Ibn Abbas, narrated that Hercules sent for Abu Sufyan and his companions, who happened to be trading in Ash-Sham, Jerusalem. That was during the truce that had been concluded between the polytheists of Quraish and the Messenger of Allah [PBUH].

Hercules, seated amongst his chiefs of staff, asked, “Who amongst you is the nearest relative to the man who claims to be a Prophet?”

“I (Abu Sufyan) replied: I am the nearest relative to him from amongst the group.’ So they made me sit in front of him and made my companions sit behind me. Then he called upon his translator and said (to him). ‘Tell them (i.e. Abu Sufyan’ s companions) that I am going to ask him (i.e. Abu Sufyan) regarding that men who claims to be a Prophet. So if he tells a lie, they should contradict him (instantly)’. By Allah had I not been afraid that my companions would consider me a liar, I would have told lies”, Abu Sufyan later said.

Abu Sufyan’ s testimony went as follows: “Muhammad descends from a noble family. No one of his family happened to assume kingship. His followers are those deemed weak with numbers ever growing. He neither tells lies nor betrays others, we fight him and he fights us but with alternate victory. He bids people to worship Allah Alone with no associate, and abandon our fathers’ beliefs. He orders us to observe prayer, honesty, abstinence and maintain strong family ties.”

“Hercules, on hearing this testimony, turned to his translator bidding him to communicate to us his following impression which reveals full conviction in the truthfulness of Muhammad’s Prophethood: T fully realize that Prophets come from noble families; he does not affect any previous example of Prophethood. Since none of his ancestors was a monarch, we cannot then allege that he is a man trying to reclaim his father’s monarchy. So long as he does not tell lies to people, he is for the more reason, immune to telling lies as regards Allah. Concerning his followers being those deemed weak with numbers ever growing, it is something that goes in agreement with questions of Faith until this latter assumes its full dimensions geographically and demographically. I have understood that no instance of apostasy has as yet appeared among his followers, and this points to the bliss of Faith that finds its abode in the human heart. Betrayal, as I see, is alien to him because real Prophets hold betrayal in abhorrence. Bidding worship of Allah with no associates, observance of prayer, honesty and abstinence and prohibition of paganism are traits bound to subject to him all my possessions. I have already known that a Prophet must arise but it has never occurred to me that he will be an Arab from among you. If I was sure I would be faithful to him, I might hope to meet him, and if I were with him, I would wash his feet.’

Hercules then requested that the Prophet’s letter be read. The observations of the emperor and finally the definite and clear-cut exposition of the Islamic message could not but create a tense atmosphere amongst the clergy present at the court. We were ordered to go out.” Abu Sufyan said, “While coming out, I said to my companions, ‘The matter of Ibn Abi Kabshah (i.e. Muhammad £$£ ) has become so prominent that even the king of Banu Al-Asfar (i.e. the Romans) is afraid of him.’ So I continued to believe that Allah’s Messenger iHf would be victorious, till Allah made me embrace Islam.” The king did not embrace Islam — for it was differently ordained. However, the Muslim envoy was returned to Madinah with the felicitations of the emperor.

Letter by Prophet Muhammad ﷺ to Chosroes, Emperor of Persia

“In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.

From Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah to Chosroes, king of Persia.

Peace be upon him who follows true guidance, believes in Allah and His Messenger and testifies that there is no god but Allah Alone with no associate, and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger. I invite you to accept the religion of Allah. I am the Messenger of Allah sent to all people in order that I may infuse fear of Allah in every living person, and that the charge may be proved against those who reject the Truth. Accept Islam as your religion so that you may live in security, otherwise, you will be responsible for all the sins of the Magians.”


‘Abdullah bin Hudhafa As-Sahmi was chosen to carry the letter. This envoy carried it to the king of Bahrain but we do not know as yet if the latter dispatched to Chosroes by one of his men or chose ‘Abdullah himself.


The proud monarch was enraged by the style of the letter as the name of the Prophet ﷺ   had been put above his own name. He tore the letter into shreds and forthwith dictated a command to his viceroy in Yemen to send a couple of troopers to arrest the Prophet and bring him to his presence. The governor, Bazan by name, immediately sent two men to Madinah for the purpose. As soon as the men reached Madinah, the Prophet Hi was informed by a Divine Revelation that Pervez, the emperor of Persia, had been murdered by his son. The Prophet ﷺ disclosed to them the news and they were stunned. He added asking them to tell their new monarch that Islam would prevail everywhere and outstrip the sovereignty of Chosroes himself. They hurried back to Bazan and communicated to him what they heard. Meanwhile, Sherweh, the new monarch sent a letter to Bazan confirming the news and bidding him to stop any procedures as regards the Prophet till further notice. Bazan, together with the Persians in Yemen, went into the folds of Islam, and gladly signified his adhesion to the Prophet ﷺ.


[Fath Al-Bari 8/1 27,1 28]